Overview

Voyage dans le monde des mégalithismes récents
Roger JOUSSAUME
Bulletin du Groupe vendéen d’études préhistoriques, n° 48, 2012, p. 39-57
GVEP 48- Monde des mégalithes.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 3.6 MB

Une approche ethnologique de populations actuelles utilisant encore certaines formes de mégalithismes à travers le monde peut-elle apporter un éclairage sur les mégalithismes du passé ?
Pour tenter de répondre à cette question, des exemples sont pris en Indonésie (Sulawesi, Nyas et Sumba) à Madagascar et en Ethiopie où l’étude des traditions funéraires des actuels Konso apporte de possibles explications aux nombreuses pierres dressées du sud du pays dont l’abandon remonte à l’adoption de l’Islam et du Christianisme vers les XIII-XIVe siècles de notre ère.

Origin and development of the megalithic monuments of western Europe

Dir. Roger Joussaume, Luc Laporte, Chris Scarre

Cet ouvrage bilingue (français et anglais) de 800 pages, réunis une
cinquantaine de contributions sur le mégalithisme d’Europe  occidental, classées par thème et par grandes régions  géographiques. Il correspond aux actes du colloque international qui s’est tenu au Musée de Bougon en 2002. Chaque chapitre commence par une synthèse des acquis de la recherche dans ce domaine au cours des vingt dernières années, effectuée par l’un des meilleurs spécialistes du moment. Pour chaque grande région concernée, suivent les communications traitant de sites ou de points particuliers. Cet ouvrage constitue une référence pour tous ceux qui s’intéressent aux dolmens et aux menhirs, et ne possède à ce jour aucun équivalent en Europe par la somme des études qui y sont réunies.

 

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Bâtisseurs du néolithique

Luc Laporte, Charles-Tanguy Le Roux

 

Ce livre donne leur unité aux mégalithismes des différentes régions de l'Ouest de la France, sans occulter les particularismes locaux. Ces monuments de pierre, oeuvre des premiers agriculteurs et  éleveurs pendant plusieurs millénaires, témoignent de la richesse et de la diversité architecturale du Néolithique, qui voit s'élever les tous premiers monuments d'Europe.


Du Bassin Aquitain à la Vendée, la Bretagne ou la Normandie, sans oublier les plaines du Centre-Ouest, les auteurs inventorient les formes variées du mégalithisme, avec ses particularités régionales, et font aussi le point des connaissances sur leur cadre naturel et humain. Ils s'attachent enfin à la recherche du sens perdu de cet art et lui restitue ses dimensions sacrées ou funéraires, issues d'un même corps social et d'un même système de pensée et de vision du monde.

 

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Arte megalítico versus megalitismo: origen del sistema decorativo megalítico
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rodrigo Balbín-Behrmann

MUITAS ANTAS, POUCA GENTE? • ACTAS DO I COLÓQUIO INTERNACIONAL SOBRE MEGALITISMO
Arte megalítico versus megalitismo.pdf
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This paper discusses the contemporaneity of the architectonic and decorative design of Iberian megalithic monuments. With this aim, the early literature is reviewed, and recent excavations are analyzed. All the data suggest that the architecture and the decoration were carried out at the same time. On the other hand, these same data demonstrate that the Iberian megalithic decorations did not restrict themselves either to one zone (the Northwest), nor to an isolated architectonic type (the passage monument), nor exclusively to dates from 3000 BC onward, as was considered during the 1980s. Monuments of various types, throughout the Peninsula, were decorated throughout the period of Iberian megalithism, a pattern repeated throughout the rest of the European Atlantic façade.

FRANCE

Dépôts de mobilier, architectures et pratiques funéraires dans l’ouest de la France, au cours du Néolithique récent et final
Luc Laporte
Sépultures collectives et mobiliers funéraires de la fin du Néolithique en Europe occidentale, 2012, pp.113-146
SCMF_article7_Laporte.pdf
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Architectures and funerary practices from the second half of the forth and the beginning of the third millennium B.C. are quite different from those in use during the previous middle Neolithic period, in many places in occidental Europe. In Western France this general trend will be expressed in very diff erent ways, if we observe regions situated north or south of the Loire River. New megalithic architectures were built on top of the soil in Brittany, or buried in the Paris Basin. No such thing in more southern regions, were the individual “burials” could even have been one of the more common practice, for a time at least. Comparisons between domestic and funerary architectures, at north, or between individual and collective burials, at south, will highlight new perspectives in the status, the composition or the disposition of funerary goods.

Mégalithismes en France :
Nouveaux acquis et nouvelles perspectives de recherche

Luc Laporte, Luc Jallot et Maïténa Sohn

Gallia Préhistoire, 53, 2011, p. 289-338

 

This article does not presume to summarize the immense complexity of megalithism in France over a period of nearly three millenia, but rather to contribute a few elements of reflection to the numerous  research directions it inspires. It first insists on the importance of finally eliminating a number of accepted ideas; among which, the tendency to systematically classify the architecture of burial spaces in function of their “apparent” complexity, from the most simple to the most elaborate. Numerous examples show that the megalithic  phenomenon is complex, not linear. Each monument, today in ruins, is the result of several architectural projects, in the true sense of the term. The construction of a site, supposes at the same time a  succession of technical acts that also merit detailed study, in the same manner as that which specialists of the Medieval period call the archeology of construction. We also wish to emphasize the necessity of addressing Megalithism from the perspective of architecture, grave goods and human remains (when they are preserved), as these three aspects are often intertwined. Finally, a megalithic monument must be understood in its space, the funerary space in the broad sense, as well as the burial space. From this perspective, a multitude of question and numerous research directions appear. Megalithism is not an outdated subjet, but an innovative one, for which much remains to be done.

 

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Innate and/or expressed identities: Their conceptualization through monumentality, funerary practices and grave goods? Some examples from the megalithic tradition of western France.
Luc Laporte
In paper of the European Megalithic Studies Group
paper published on October 15th, 2010
Laporte_MSG_2010_low.pdf
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The notion of identity has sometimes been implicitly likened to methodology of classification, which applies to prehistorian’s work in  order to better position the subject of his research in time and space. Concerning megalithism in Western France, a model of  unilinear development has now prevailed for about fifteen years,  drawing a parallel between the classification of architectures and  what appeared to be new suggestions concerning the periodisation  of material culture. This model struggles in accounting for the entire  diversity of the observed facts. Therefore, one has to accept the  idea of multiplicity of identities or of multifaceted identities,  sometimes coexisting within the same place. A technological  approach assumes that all material implementation realized by men  – beyond functional constraints and specificities – bears a part of  innate identity resulting from the manner in which the operational  sequences, whether simple or complex, are set up. At the same  time, all these implementations materialise a conceptual standard to  which expressed identity values are often attributed. Amongst the  numerous conceptual standards whose entire diversity we only just  start to perceive in the megalithism of Western France, a very  elongated trapeze-shaped plan lined by two lateral quarries is  valorised. According to a general proposal hardly new in itself, this  standard is not without recalling the plan of the Danubian house .

Restauration, reconstruction, appropriation; évolution des architectures mégalithiques dans l’Ouest de la France, entre passé et présent.
Luc Laporte
In MUNIBE Suplemento - Gehigarria xx, 2010
ponencia-04.pdf
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Tous ceux qui se sont livrés à ce difficile exercice qu’est la  restauration de l’architecture d’un monument mégalithique, savent combien il comporte d’approximations, d’hésitations, de choix  arbitraires, et même parfois de préjugés infondés. Cela revient à  figer le monument dans un état que les bâtisseurs du Néolithique  n’ont peut-être jamais vus ainsi, soit parce qu’il s’agit d’un état  partiel souvent lié à un état de conservation particulier, soit parce  que ces monuments ont connus une histoire architecturale  complexe dont il est bien difficile de rendre compte sur le terrain. Ce  sont en somme des questions similaires à celles qui ont été  soulevées à la suite des nombreuses restaurations effectuées à la  fin du XIX° siècle sur des monuments de la période médiévale. En  ce qu’elles sont aussi une forme d’appropriation de formes  architecturales héritées, parfois, de telles attitudes ne sont  peut-être pas totalement étrangères à l’évolution de ces  architectures au cours du Néolithique lui même. Tous les exemples  que nous seront amenés à détailler proviennent de l’ouest de la  France, pour lequel un rapide bilan de nos connaissances les plus  actuelles sur le mégalithisme sera proposé. En un même lieu, ils  concernent aussi bien l’évolution architecturale de l’enveloppe  tumulaire que celle des espaces funéraires, ou de leurs abords.  Modification du plan initial du monument, développement par  accrétions foisonnantes ou linéaires, intégration d’une partie d’une  nécropole antérieure dans un seul ensemble monumental plus  vaste, destruction d’une partie du dispositif, par exemple frappé  d’alignement, ou reconstruction d’une partie des façades,  adjonction de nouvelles chambres funéraires, voire reprise en  sous-oeuvre de certains aménagements au sein de ces dernières,  sont autant d’opérations qui ont été pratiquées par les  constructeurs néolithiques eux-mêmes ; pratiques dont l’importance  a probablement été sous-estimée dans notre compréhension de ces  monuments, souvent faute d’études détaillées. De ce point de  vue, par exemple, le remploi de fragments de grandes stèles  gravées dans la construction de quelques monuments du Morbihan,  n’apparaît plus forcément comme le produit d’une fureur  iconoclaste contribuant à séparer nettement deux phases aux  architectures clairement distinctes, mais s’intègre bien plus comme  une composante d’un processus continu, intrinsèque à la vie de  chacun de ces monuments néolithiques. La prise en compte de  cette dimension supplémentaire contribue de plus à rompre le  carcan d’un schéma d’évolution par trop unilinéaire et par trop  théorique, vulgarisé à partir des années 1990. Cette réflexion,  initiée à partir de la nécessité de rendre au grand public  d’aujourd’hui une partie des découvertes que nous réalisons dans  le cadre de la fouille des monuments mégalithiques, nous amènera  ainsi à nous interroger sur la notion même de monument, y compris  telle qu’elle a pu être perçue par ceux qui les ont construits ou par  leurs contemporains.

La nécropole mégalithique de la pointe du Souc’h (Plouhinec, Finistère)
Michel Le Goffic
In Archéo-théma, n°10, sept-oct 2010
AT09_30062010_pp 15-17.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 532.9 KB
Des géants un peu oubliés Nécropoles tumulaires des Charentes et territoires habités.
Elias Lopez-, Régis Bernard, Luc Laporte, José Gomez de Soto, Roger Joussaume
Archéo-théma, n°10, sept-oct 2010
AT09_30062010_pp 18-25.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 770.9 KB
Une structure d'habitat circulaire dans le Néolithique ancien du Centre-Ouest de la France
Luc Laporte, Grégor Marchand, Laurent Quesnel
Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française. 2004, tome 101, N. 1. pp. 55-73.
article_bspf_0249-7638_2004_num_101_1_12
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We would like to discuss here the implications of the discovery of an early Neolithic round house at Les Ouchettes (Plassay, Charente-Maritime). It is the first example of such a house discovered to date for this period in central-western France and, more generally, on the Atlantic coast of France. The opposition between round and quadrangular house plans is an important cultural element. The circular form presumed for Mesolithic dwellings seems to be much more due to present beliefs concerning hunter-gatherer  communities than based on archaeological data. This short article does not enable us to define the characteristics of indigenous dwellings, thus unfortunately restricting our demonstration. Circular and quadrangular house plans are both attested at a very early date in Neolithic settlements near the north Mediterranean coast, whereas only quadrangular plans are attested for the houses of the LBK cultures. We have to confess that the former are much less well documented than the latter. The circular construction at Les  Ouchettes, associated with artefacts indicating quite strong  outhern characteristics, could be part of the diversity of house plans  connected with the different early Neolithic groups producing impressed ceramics found near the north-western coast of the Mediterranean. We cannot fail also to discuss the possibility of a relationship between this type of domestic architecture and the funerary architecture with round chambers contained within a circular mound so frequently found in this region.

Tumulus C of Péré (Prissé-la-Charrière)

News From the West: Ancient DNA From a French Megalithic Burial Chamber,
Marie-France Deguilloux,Ludovic Soler,Marie-Helene Pemonge,Chris Scarre,Roger Joussaume,Luc Laporte
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 144:108–118 (2011)
Deguilloux 2011 French Megalithic burial
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Recent paleogenetic studies have confirmed that the spread of the Neolithic across Europe was neither genetically nor geographically uniform. To extend existing knowledge of the mitochondrial European Neolithic gene pool, we examined six samples of human skeletal material from a French megalithic long mound (c.4200 cal BC). We retrieved HVR-I sequences from three individuals and demonstrated that in the Neolithic period the mtDNA haplogroup N1a, previously only known in central Europe, was as widely distributed as western France. Alternative scenarios are discussed in seeking to explain this result, including Mesolithic ancestry, Neolithic demic diffusion, and long-distance matrimonial exchanges. In light of the limited Neolithic ancient DNA (aDNA) data currently available, we observe that all three scenarios appear equally  consistent with paleogenetic and archaeological data. In  consequence, we advocate caution in interpreting aDNA in the context of the Neolithic transition in Europe. Nevertheless, our results strengthen conclusions demonstrating genetic discontinuity between modern and ancient Europeans whether through migration, demographic or selection processes, or social practices.

Nouvelles données sur le mégalithisme de l’ouest de la France
Luc Laporte, Chris Scarre, Roger Joussaume, Ludovic Soler
Archéo-théma, n°10, sept-oct 2010
AT09_30062010_pp 3-14.pdf
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Long mounds and megalithic origins in western France : recent excavations at Prisse-la-Charriere
Chris Scarre,Luc Laporte, Roger Joussaume
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society., 69, 2003 pp. 235-251.
Long mounds and megalithic origins in we
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The ancestry of the long mound has long been a key focus in debates on the origins of monumental and megalithic architectures in western France. Typological schemes and absolute dates have alike been invoked in support of different models of monument development, but with limited success. Recent excavations at Prissé-la-Charrière, a 100-metre long mound in the Poitou-Charentes region, have emphasised the importance of internal structure and the complex process of modification and accretion by which many long mounds achieved their final form and dimensions. Excavations have revealed an early megalithic chamber in a dry-stone rotunda, that was progressively incorporated in a short long mound, then in the 100 m long mound we see today, which contains at least two further chamber tombs. The wide range of monument forms present in western and northern France during the 5th millennium BC suggests that the issue of monument origins must be viewed in a broad inter-regional perspective, within which a number of individual elements could be combined in a variety of different ways. Consideration of seven specific elements, including the shape of the mound, the position and accessibility of the chamber, and the significance of above-ground tomb chambers as opposed to graves or pits leads us to propose a polygenic model for the origins of the long mounds and related monuments of western France.

Le tumulus C de Péré à Prissé-la-Charrière (Deux-Sèvres)
Luc Laporte, Roger Joussaume, Chris Scarre
Gallia préhistoire. Tome 44, 2002. pp. 167-214.
article_galip_0016-4127_2002_num_44_1_20
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This article presents the results of six years of excavation at Tumulus C in the megalithic cemetery of Prissé-la-Charrière (Deux-Sèvres). This is a trapezoidal mound 115 metres long, 30 metres wide and 4 metres high, that was constructed in several stages. The earliest stage that has so far been documented consists of a small funerary monument measuring 7.2 metres east-west and 8.8 metres wide. It was built largely of earth, and contained a cist open on one side and enclosed within a circular dry-stone mass. At a later stage, the entrance to the cist was blocked and the monument extended towards the east to form a long mound 23 metres in length. This mound was entirely surrounded by an encircling ditch. Later still, the 100-metre trapezoidal long mound was built, enclosing the earlier long mound within its western terminal. This extended mound contains at least one megalithic chamber of quadrangular plan, accessed by a passage opening from the northern façade approximately 1/3 of the distance from the western terminal. The chamber has yielded Middle Neolithic material. The significance of these discoveries are discussed in relation to existing understanding of the megalithic monuments in this region of France, with particular regard to the question of origins.

Lillemer

Occupation du Néolithique moyen autour de la butte de Lillemer (Ille-et-Vilaine),
Par Catherine Bizien-Jaglin, Jean-Noël Guyodo, Luc Laporte
Archéo-théma, n°10, sept-oct 2010
AT10_30062010_pp 26-34.pdf
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Nouvelles découvertes en milieu humide autour de l’habitat ceinturé du Néolithique moyen à Lillemer (Ille-et-Vilaine, France),
Luc Laporte,Jean-Noël Guyodo,Catherine Bizien-Jaglin,Vincent Bernard,Francis Bertin,Stéphane Blanchet,Marie-France Dietsch-Sellami,Véronique Guitton,Anne-Louise Hamon,Gwenaëlle Hamon,Quentin Lemouland,Alexandre Lucquin,
Actes du 27e colloque interrégional sur le Néolithique (Neuchâtel, 05)
Alain Noslier et Laurent Quesnel
Cahiers Arch Romande 108-Laporte2.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 2.7 MB

The hillock of Lillemer is circumscribed by at least two embankments and ditches partially preserved, dating from the Middle Neolithic. Notably, a monumental paved entrance, bordered by dressed upright stones, has been excavated. Several Neolithic fixtures have been exposed in the surrounding marshes, amongst which can be numbered several plank and branches trackways. One of these appears to have been marked with a menhir. Few hilltop sites have been studied in the past fifty years for the period in question in Western France, as compared to the numerous excavations of contemporaneous megalithic monuments. Furthermore, the substantial volume of artefacts found, makes this ensemble a reference collection at the regional level.

Iberian peninsula

Entre lo visible y lo invisible: registros funerarios de la Prehistoria reciente de la Meseta Sur
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rosa Barroso Bermejo and Rodrigo Balbín-Behrmann

ARQUEOLOGÍA, SOCIEDAD,TERRITORIO Y PAISAJE
ESTUDIOS SOBRE PREHISTORIA RECIENTE,PROTOHISTORIA Y TRANSICIÓN AL MUNDO ROMANO
EN HOMENAJE A M.ª DOLORES FERNÁNDEZ POSSE
53-73, Madrid, 2010
04_HomMDFP_PBueno_RBarroso_RBalbín.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 2.2 MB

Settlements and burials have been the two main factors involved in the interpretation of the recent Prehistory of the inner areas of the Iberian Peninsula, usually involving opposite assessments. Traces of settlement were absent during the Neolithic and Calcolithic, and the Bell-Beaker period were defined just by the funerary remains. Thus, it was assumed that a remarkable depopulation occurred during the Neolithic and Calcolithic, and that the Bell-Beaker package, understood as the visual marker of chiefs or warrior leaders of the Early Bronze Age, appeared suddenly. A process of rupture, that fails to explain the how, the why and the intermediate explanatory points of the social and economic increase that maintained the Bell-Beaker elites of the interior.

From the eighties onward, our team has contributed to this topic with arguments aiming to establish a wide settlement and funerary sequence in the whole west Peninsula, starting in the vi millennium cal BC. According to that, the Bell-beaker phenomenon, that can be located within the course of the ritual of the ancestors, would have deep megalithic roots.

The verification of organized necropolis with collective burials and rock-cut tomb structures associated to the large settlements of the Tertiary plain of the Tagus, bring together the cultural products of the whole southern peninsular area in a greater manner. These data allow us to propose new views about the origins of social inequality in the lands of the Meseta.

Agricultores y metalúrgicos en el Valle de Huecas
Primitiva Bueno Ramirez, Rosa Barroso Bermejo and Rodrigo De Balbín Behrmann

Medioambiente y Arqueología. El Valle de Huecas Anthropos, UAH,Diputación de Toledo , 2009
agricultores-y-metalurgicos-en-el-valle-
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O CÍRCULO QUE FOI. A MOURELA NO SEU CONTEXTO HISTÓRICO.
Xosé Ignacio Vilaseco Vázquez

In Bonilla Rodríguez, A. & Fábregas Valcarce, R. (eds.) Círculo de Engaños. Excavación del cromlech de A Mourela: pp. 37-58. Andavira Ed. Santiago de Compostela, 2009.
art. Xose Ignacio Vilaseco Vazquez.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 2.1 MB
KATILLOTXU V. UN PROGRAMA GRÁFICO INTEGRAL
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann

Illunzar, 7, 2007-2009, 127-138
05-Illunzar 7 - Bueno y Balbin.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 3.5 MB
CAMPANIFORME EN LAS CONSTRUCCIONES HIPOGEAS DEL MEGALITISMO RECIENTE AL INTERIOR DE LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rosa Barroso Bermejo and Rodrigo Balbín-Behrmann

VELEIA, 24-25 771-790, 2007-2008
CAMPANIFORME EN CONS.HIPOGEAS VELEIA.pdf
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This paper shows the new presence of artifi cial caves and structures of stone walls in the Interior of the Iberian Peninsula, and the interesting association with Bell Beaker and prestigious grave goods. The implications of this panoramic in order to value the large course of the interior Megalithism, connect with the reality of the wide interaction capacities that these demonstrates.

Cervidés et serpents dans la mythologie funéraire du mégalithisme ibérique
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann

ANTHROPOZOOLOGICA • 2006 • 41
Cervidés,serpents.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 5.4 MB

Deer and snakes in the funeral mythology of the Iberian megalithic
The research project on Megalithic art developed since the end of the 1980s has led us to examine a wide range of questions, from the methodologies used for the data to the thematic and technical analyses. The results are applicable to Iberian schematic art as a whole, because the representations found on the megaliths have a direct link with the open-air paintings and engravings. The megalithic decorations are a specialisation in funeral contexts of schematic art. The role of the anthropomorphic figures in the funeral contexts is very clear. These are paintings and engravings on stone slabs and representations which are sculpted or on objects that occupy very significant spaces in burial zones. In most cases, the anthropomorphic figures are not alone. They appear to be associated with other themes. The animal figures especially have a role of accompaniment to the human figures in Iberian megalithic art.
An initial analysis of the variety and the quantity of these animal figures indicates a clear selection of these themes. If we compare the animals represented in schematic art and in megalithic art, the quantity is noticeably less in the context of funeral art, which concentrates on two species: deer and snakes. These species never appear alone but in scenes in which they are clearly protagonists of the human individuals. The deer occur often in the hunting scenes; at the side of men and suns, they evoke a mythical image of the “hunt of the ancestors”, more and more widely recorded in Iberian megalithic art.
However, the snakes do not appear to be integrated into concrete scenes, but are represented in proximity to individuals, perhaps to confer special powers. The example of the stele of Navalcán is very explicit. Thus, deer and snakes, species that accompany the human figures, are different symbolically.

Alimentación y economía en contextos habitacionales y funerarios del Neolítico meseteño.
Primitiva Bueno, Rosa María Barroso, Rodrigo Balbin, Manuel Campo, Armando González, Francisco Etxeberría, Lourdes Herrasti, Virginia Galván, Jordi Juan-Tresserras, José Antonio López, Pilar López, Juan Carlos Matamala, Juan José Millos, Beatriz Robledo, Gonzalo Trancho, Begoña Sánchez

III Congreso del Neolítico en la Península Ibérica.Santander,2005:83-92
Alimentación y economía.pdf
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La interpretación tradicional del Neolítico en las zonas interiores venía definida por su marginalidad demográfica y su relación exclusiva con grupos ganaderos muy poco sedentarios.

Las especiales características de conservación de dos de los yacimientos más interiores en los que hemos intervenido recientemente, el dolmen de Azután y el túmulo del Castillejo, nos llevaron a emprender un programa específico de analíticas encaminado a argumentar los patrones económicos y alimenticios de estas poblaciones.

Junto a los tradicionales análisis polínicos, hemos realizado cuenteo de esporas fúngicas en los suelos de habitación, con el fin de valorar la presencia de ganado, que ha sido afrontada además por el estudio de los huesos de fauna, de la materia prima de algunos objetos como las espátulas San Martín-El Miradero, y por el rastreo de elementos traza en los restos de los enterrados.

La agricultura ha sido documentada a partir de los análisis polínicos ya mencionados, además de a través del rastreo de fitolitos sobre útiles de molienda, análisis del contenido de los vasos y estudio de la paleodieta de los enterrados.

Los rasgos definidos mediante esta batería analítica conforman un diseño acerca de los sistemas alimenticios y de los aprovechamientos económicos de los grupos neolíticos del interior que los aleja bastante de las ideas manejadas hasta el momento y que permite proponer un modelo de explotación del entorno muy próximo al que
valoramos para las áreas clásicas.

CONSTRUCCIONES MEGALÍTICAS AVANZADAS DE LA CUENCA INTERIOR DEL TAJO. EL NÚCLEO CACEREÑO
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rosa Barroso Bermejo and Rodrigo Balbín-Behrmann

SPAL 13 (2004) : 83-112
03 bueno ramire. Mega.avanzado.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 2.2 MB

The autors, manifest the wealth of the megalithic expressions of the hole recent land of Caceres, crossed by Tagus river. They defend the long sequence of the megalithic culture with dates from the V Milenium cal BC. that continues building to the Bronze Age. The Necropolis of monuments of small size, in which are deteced authentic stones cist that reflect the use of these references to the ancient tradition in the area of metal groups ot the inland Tagus. This assumes that the individuality process are not confirmed deeply with Beaker, but are stablishing slowly into social contexts to trend to hierarchy from Middle Neolithic, as shows the same system of use of colective tombs.

Africa

Wanar (Senegal)

Megalithic monumentality in Africa: from graves to stone circles at Wanar, Senegal.
L. Laporte,H. Bocoum,J-P. Cros,A.Delvoye,R. Bernard,M. Diallo,M.Diop,A. Kane,V. Dartois,M. Lejay,F. Bertin,L. Quesnel
ANTIQUITY 86 (2012): 409–427
ant2011-0107a.pdf
Document Adobe Acrobat 5.4 MB

The World Heritage Site of Wanar in Senegal features 21 stone circles, remarkable not least because they were erected in the twelfth and thirteenth century AD, when Islam ruled the Indian Ocean and Europe was in its Middle Ages. The state of preservation has benefited the exemplary investigation currently carried out by a French-Senegalese team, which we are pleased to report here. The site began as a burial ground to which monumental stones were added, perhaps echoing the form of original funerary houses. Found in a neighbouring field were scoops left from the cutting out of the cylindrical monoliths from surface rock. While the origins of Wanar lie in a period of state formation, the monuments are shown to have had a long ritual use. The investigation not only  rovides a new context for one of the most important sites in West Africa but the precise determination of the sequence and techniques used at Wanar offers key pointers for the understanding of megalithic structures everywhere.

Le site mégalithique de Wanar, note préliminaire sur un nouveau programme de coopération entre la France et le Sénégal,
Luc Laporte, Hamady Bocoum, Régis Bernard, Francis Bertin, Vincent Dartois, Adrien Delvoye,Malik Diop, Abdoulaye Kane, Laurent Quesnel
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts, n°5
Wanar (99-108).pdf
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This article presents the results of the first excavations conducted on the World Heritage megalithic site of Wanar, which are part of a new program of scientific cooperation between France and Senegal (2008-2011). New interpretations, among them pasts aspects of nowadays partly ruined arhictectures, are proposed.